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Using trait-based ecology to restore resilient ecosystems: historical conditions and the future of montane forests in western North America

Historical reference conditions have provided empirical benchmarks for guiding ecological restoration but the relevance of historical conditions has been questioned in this era of rapid global change. Trait-based ecology offers an alternative approachfor setting restoration objectives. Ifwe understand which phenotypic traits confer high survival in a given environment, then we can restore assemblages of species with favorable trait combinations to reducemortality risk, achieve functional outcomes, and enhance restoration success.
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